«Єнісей» - competitor «Шилки»

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In 1950-60 years in the Soviet Union paid considerable attention to the development of military air defense. It was at that time that such an example was adopted as the Armed Forces-23-4 "Shilka", which still serves in the armed forces of Ukraine.

However, few people know that, along with Shilka, another very interesting example of an anti-aircraft self-propelled unit - the ZSU-37-2 "Yenisei" (or "119 Object") was tested.

17 April 1957 The decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR was decided to start the development of new Armed Forces - the future "Shilki" and "Yenisei".

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  • Interestingly, at first they were not rivals to each other. ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" was supposed to provide defeat of goals at altitudes up to 1500 m for air defenses of motorized rifle regiments, and ZSU-37-2 "Yenisei" had to hit targets at altitudes up to 3000 m in air defense armored divisions and regiments.

    In fact, the UAV-37-2 "Yenisei" is an automatic anti-aircraft gun 2А12 "Angara" from two 37-millimeter 500P machines, mounted on the chassis CAU SU-100P. With unique ballistics, they did not have interchangeability with ammunition, the exception was a small-scale anti-aircraft plant "Shkval".

    The guidance was carried out using the 1A11 "Baikal", which worked in a centimeter wavelength range, with an impedance-protected radar sight.

    In normal firing mode, the gun made a turn in the 150 shots, then, for 30 seconds, the trunks were cooled by a fluid system, then the cycle was repeated until the ammunition was fully expended.

    Tests "Shilka" and "Yenisei" were practically simultaneous, but with a bit different programs.

    According to the results of the tests, "Yenisei" provided a zone of damage close to its parameters to the AFU-57-2. According to the State Commission, "Yenisei" provided a cover for tank troops, both from attacks of air targets operating at altitudes of 3000 meters, as well as in all other types of combat.

    After analyzing the data obtained during the trial, it was proposed to use the Armed Forces of Ukraine "Yenisei" to protect the KRU "Krug" and the "Cube".

    According to the State Commission, the car was recommended for adoption. However, 5 September 1962 by the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on arms was adopted by the AFU-23-4 "Shilka", which automatically meant "death sentence" for the Yenisei. In September 1962, all work on the Yenisei was stopped.
    No copies of the two constructed have survived.

    Tactical and technical characteristics of the ZSU-37-2 "Yenisei"

    Combat mass - 27,5 tons
    Crew - 4 people
    Body length - 6360 mm
    Length with gun forward - 6715 mm
    Width - 3100 mm
    Height - 3325..3525 mm
    Base - 4325 mm
    Ammunition gun - 540 shells
    Highway speed 60 km / h
    Crossing speed is 20.25 km / h
    Stream along the highway - 450 km
    Trail across the rough terrain - 310 km


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